The explosion of violence in the Middle East is a symptom of what we see there as a crisis of the state. In the much cited definition by Weber, the state is to be considered an entity, an institution, or a system of institutions, that success-fully claims the monopoly or legitimate use of violence in a specific territory.
Although this monopoly of legitimate violence may define the state, however, systematic application of this potentially undermines it. When a state needs to turn to repertoires of violence in a generalized way, it may lose the virtue of its functional competence and thus legitimacy. Then, government becomes the on-going exercise of power though violence, and violence a condition for the functioning of state institutions.
This, as Walter Benjamin explains, we may refer to as the state
of emergency becoming norm, not an exception but the rule.
This rule has been tormenting the Kurdistan region in Syria,Turkey, Iraq and Iran for decades Kurdish Spring